A glass-like paste in its raw state, enamel is made of fluorite and silicate. There are several types of enamel used in India - mulaim meena (soft enamel), sakht meena (hard enamel), and khula meena (transparent enamel). Today, raw enamel is manufactured in Jaipur and Kolkata. The quintessential motifs of the meenakar (enameller) were derived from the sun, the moon, animals, and flowers such as roses, poppies, chrysanthemums, and the lotus.
A Cabochon (or cutting en cabochon – French: “in the manner of a cabochon”) is a kind of cut used on gemstones where the stone is molded and polished into a smooth, convex shape with a flat base. Cabochons or Cabs are usually circular or oval but may be cut into different shapes.