A glass-like paste in its raw state, enamel is made of fluorite and silicate. There are several types of enamel used in India - mulaim meena (soft enamel), sakht meena (hard enamel), and khula meena (transparent enamel). Today, raw enamel is manufactured in Jaipur and Kolkata. The quintessential motifs of the meenakar (enameller) were derived from the sun, the moon, animals, and flowers such as roses, poppies, chrysanthemums and the lotus.
Jadau derives its name from the colloquial term ‘jad’ (which means to embed), and is widely used in kundan, polki and meenakari jewellery. Introduced in India by the Mughals, it is a technique of jewellery-making where precious gemstones like uncut diamonds, pearls, emeralds and rubies are embedded into gold.